Gotta chime in here. First, if ya'll don't mind, I'm going to give myself a little plug and say that I covered this subject in depth in my book A Passion for Steelhead. With that in mind however, Smalma and Salmo G pretty much said the same thing I say in my book. Experience is the best teacher and is, I'm certain, the reason that the 3 of us have found similar approaches to a missed steelhead. Two things I might add: 1. If the angler missed the fish (pulled the fly away) the chances of getting that one back dramatically decreases. (Yes, there are those wonderful kamakazis that give the trigger-happy angler multiple chances at redemption.) Conversley I have found that if the steelhead makes an aggresive attempt at the fly and misses on its own, the oppurtunity to get that fish back on subsequent casts and possible fly changes is very good. I loosley tell my clients that if THEY miss the fish they have a 20% chance of getting it to come back; if the STEELHEAD misses, they have an 80% chance of of having their fly pummeled again. This has been my experience anyway. 2. I have found that by going right back at them with a slower swing and the same fly is often the ticket. I don't slow my fly by mending more, I just move closer to the suspected lie by wading out a little, and/or holding my rod out over the river. The closer the rod-tip is to the fly the slower it swings. Panhadle's advice is right on as well!