What is the life cycle of landlocked salmon?

speedbird49

Active Member
Something I have always been curious about is the life history's of landlocked salmon like the Chinook in Lake Chelan or Kokanee. After spawning, do they die like other salmon? Or are they able to live on as a result of not enduring the stress of moving from salt to freshwater?
 

cabezon

Sculpin Enterprises
WFF Supporter
Something I have always been curious about is the life history's of landlocked salmon like the Chinook in Lake Chelan or Kokanee. After spawning, do they die like other salmon? Or are they able to live on as a result of not enduring the stress of moving from salt to freshwater?
All Pacific "salmon" (Onchorynchus, excuding O. mykiss (rainbows), O. clarki (cutthroat) and other freshwater offshoots of these two species), whether anadromous or landlocked (aka, Kokanee or Great Lakes transplants), die after spawning = semelparous. Semelparous species divert all possible resources into more offspring. leaving nothing left to survive reproduction. In ecological theory, if the energy diverted into more eggs/sperm results in more offspring than keeping some energy back for future potential spawning events (=iteroparous), it will be favored evolutionarily (see here for a more complete development of the iteroparous vs. semelparous theory).
Steve
 

speedbird49

Active Member
All Pacific "salmon" (Onchorynchus, excuding O. mykiss (rainbows), O. clarki (cutthroat) and other freshwater offshoots of these two species), whether anadromous or landlocked (aka, Kokanee or Great Lakes transplants), die after spawning = semelparous. Semelparous species divert all possible resources into more offspring. leaving nothing less to survive reproduction. In ecological theory, if the energy diverted into more eggs/sperm results in more offspring than keeping some energy back for future potential spawning events (=iteroparous), it will be favored evolutionarily (see here for a more complete development of the iteroparous vs. semelparous theory).
Steve
Interesting, thank you!
 

cabezon

Sculpin Enterprises
WFF Supporter
"Semelparous" - must be Latin for "what's the effing point?" ;) .
Kind of: "Semelparous comes from the Latin root words semel, meaning 'a single time' and pario, meaning 'to beget'", from https://highparknaturecentre.com/index.php/blog/2019/word-of-the-week-semelparous. In their simplest (aka, least realistic) form, it takes the production of only one more offspring by diverting resources into more reproduction for the semelparous strategy to be equivalent to the interoparous strategy. Any more than one offspring and semelparous becomes the favored strategy. When you add in more realism, such as hatchling survival vs. adult survival, as long as the ratio of the two survival rates x the number of additional offspring is > 1, semelparity rules. There is an interesting examination of the evolution of semelparity from iteroparity in salmonids here. One of the differences between interoparous vs. semelparous salmonids is that the semelparous species produce much larger eggs, presumably increasing juvenile survival.
Steve
 
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Chucker

Chucking a dead parrot on a piece of string!
I recall reading about a hatchery somewhere that managed to hold spawned chinook and got them to recover fully enough that they could spawn a second time. (I think this was seen as a way to increase effective numbers of critically endangered runs). Interesting in that it shows that pacific salmon can survive after spawning, but they don’t because of the combination of their behavior and their very low physiological reserves.
 

troutpocket

Active Member
Steelhead kelt reconditioning is an interesting practice. Downstream kelts are captured and held in freshwater tanks to “recondition” after spawning rather than take their chances in the ocean, essentially making them landlocked after their first spawning. The goal is to release them the following year to increase natural origin spawners in the target systems like Upper Snake River and Columbia River trib streams. CRITFC and Yakama Nation Fisheries have kelt reconditioning programs. Maybe others as well?
 
All Pacific "salmon" (Onchorynchus, excuding O. mykiss (rainbows), O. clarki (cutthroat) and other freshwater offshoots of these two species), whether anadromous or landlocked (aka, Kokanee or Great Lakes transplants), die after spawning = semelparous. Semelparous species divert all possible resources into more offspring. leaving nothing left to survive reproduction. In ecological theory, if the energy diverted into more eggs/sperm results in more offspring than keeping some energy back for future potential spawning events (=iteroparous), it will be favored evolutionarily (see here for a more complete development of the iteroparous vs. semelparous theory).
Steve
I thought searun cutthroat spawned multiple times.


and

 

cabezon

Sculpin Enterprises
WFF Supporter
Yes, both O. mykiss and O. clarki are interoparous, whether they have remained in freshwater or become anadromous. But I also wanted to include the exclusively freshwater species like O. gilae (gila trout / apache trout) and O. chrysogaster (Mexican golden trout) in the iteroparous camp. Hence the wording "and other freshwater offshoots". I believe that other salmonid species (e.g, members of genus Salmo and Salvelinus) are also iteroparous.
Steve
 

Jake Dogfish

Active Member
I recall reading about a hatchery somewhere that managed to hold spawned chinook and got them to recover fully enough that they could spawn a second time. (I think this was seen as a way to increase effective numbers of critically endangered runs). Interesting in that it shows that pacific salmon can survive after spawning, but they don’t because of the combination of their behavior and their very low physiological reserves.
That would be interesting to read. I have never heard of this.
 

SilverFly

Active Member
Yes, both O. mykiss and O. clarki are interoparous, whether they have remained in freshwater or become anadromous. But I also wanted to include the exclusively freshwater species like O. gilae (gila trout / apache trout) and O. chrysogaster (Mexican golden trout) in the iteroparous camp. Hence the wording "and other freshwater offshoots". I believe that other salmonid species (e.g, members of genus Salmo and Salvelinus) are also iteroparous.
Steve

Steve,

At the risk of a thread hijack, I'm curious if there is any evidence of distinct Colorado river basin species having anadromous genetic origins?

Specifically that in the not-too-distant past (ice age), if Sea of Cortez may have been capable of supporting temperate Onchorynchus species. Basically a common ancestor linking Pacific watersheds to now isolated species such as the Gila trout. If steelhead exist as far south as Northern Baja today, then making it around Cabo might have happened in a far cooler climate. Seems a stretch, I know, but not sure what the alternative mechanism would be.

Of course we can take it offline if this is going down a rabbit hole. And thanks again for the awesome academic input!

Guy
 

cabezon

Sculpin Enterprises
WFF Supporter
Steve,

At the risk of a thread hijack, I'm curious if there is any evidence of distinct Colorado river basin species having anadromous genetic origins?

Specifically that in the not-too-distant past (ice age), if Sea of Cortez may have been capable of supporting temperate Onchorynchus species. Basically a common ancestor linking Pacific watersheds to now isolated species such as the Gila trout. If steelhead exist as far south as Northern Baja today, then making it around Cabo might have happened in a far cooler climate. Seems a stretch, I know, but not sure what the alternative mechanism would be.

Of course we can take it offline if this is going down a rabbit hole. And thanks again for the awesome academic input!

Guy
Hi Guy,
Interesting questions (see this link and this link for some general background). There are two trout taxa found in Mexico. One taxon, Nelson's trout (O. mykiss nelsoni) is found in northern Baja Mexico (west of the Sea of Cortez); It is more closely related genetically to the coastal steelhead of Southern California and northern Baja. It may simply be a population of O. mykiss.
In contrast, the endangered Mexican golden trout (O. chrysogaster) is found in the highlands of the Sierra Madre Occidental, a north-south mountain range east of the Sea of Cortez. This species is also related to O. mykiss but it has evolved significant genetic (and coloration) differences and there may be one or two other cryptic species in the region. There are three hypotheses for the evolution of the Mexican golden trout: 1) descendants of coastal rainbow trout, 2) descendants of inland redband trout via headland stream capture, or 3) descendants of cutthroat trout.
Steve
 

Salvy

Been steelhead fishing once
I saw land locked salmon and thought of those in New England. What a life history!
I moved from Maine in 2016 and miss a lot of things but the LLS I miss the most.
 

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