All of these were found in the Russian River. The larvae were found on gravel in a moderate current and the pupae were found in a fast current attached to cobbles. The pupae are often in aggregations on the cobble and attached by the front and back of the case. The shell is sealed with plugs at both ends. The larvae was identified to genus and the pupae to family using Merritt, Cummins and Berg (2008). The length of the larvae is 7 mm for the case and 6 mm for the larvae. For the pupae it is 8 mm for the case and 7mm for the pupae. All were found between April and July.